Data tables

These data tables detail our findings at each time point during the study to accompany the information on this web site about the evaluation study and our findings.

Initial RCT phase (A)

During the initial phase of the study, we conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) where children were assigned to one of two groups. The 'intervention' group received the reading and language intervention and the 'comparison' group received 'teaching as usual'. Table 1 shows the average scores for each group at the beginning of the study. Table 2 shows the average scores for each group at the end of the RCT phase of the study and the average score gains.

Table 1 | Scores prior to initial intervention period (at the start of RCT phase A: t1) for intervention group (1) and 'teaching as usual' comparison group (2)
Outcome Measure Intervention Comparison
Sample Size Mean Score Standard Deviation Sample Size Mean Score Standard Deviation
Single word reading 28 5.86 10.41 25 6.88 12.43
Letter-sound knowledge 28 15.36 8.13 26 13.12 9.27
Phoneme blending 28 5.00 1.94 26 4.85 2.53
Nonword reading 27 0.52 1.25 23 0.96 1.61
Phonetic spelling 28 4.89 17.88 25 12.35 23.85
Taught expressive vocabulary 1 28 5.07 3.51 26 5.00 3.59
Taught receptive vocabulary 1 28 12.04 4.83 26 11.92 3.20
Expressive vocabulary 28 29.64 11.85 26 27.69 13.88
Receptive vocabulary 28 35.61 12.00 26 35.23 15.25
Expressive grammar 28 5.86 5.38 25 4.80 5.64
Expressive information 28 13.84 7.26 26 11.79 6.39
Table 2 | Scores, score gains and group differences following initial intervention period (at the end of RCT phase A: t2) for intervention group (1) and 'teaching as usual' comparison group (2)
Outcome Measure Intervention Comparison Intervention Comparison Mean Difference
Mean Score Standard Deviation Mean Score Standard Deviation Mean Score Gain Standard Deviation Mean Score Gain Standard Deviation
Single word reading 10.50 12.01 8.92 13.59 4.64 4.18 2.04 3.21 2.60
Letter-sound knowledge 22.29 7.28 16.35 9.42 6.93 5.18 3.23 5.49 3.70
Phoneme blending 6.25 2.35 4.88 2.55 1.25 2.66 0.04 1.48 1.21
Nonword reading 0.96 1.48 1.04 1.90 0.48 1.50 0.17 1.19 0.31
Phonetic spelling 11.00 21.84 17.00 26.98 6.11 12.66 4.16 10.36 1.95
Taught expressive vocabulary 1 8.50 4.07 6.77 3.84 3.43 3.19 1.77 2.29 1.66
Taught receptive vocabulary 1 15.50 3.55 14.04 3.67 3.46 3.52 2.12 2.88 1.35
Expressive vocabulary 34.00 11.72 32.00 13.43 4.36 5.24 4.31 7.40 0.05
Receptive vocabulary 38.79 11.85 38.27 12.54 3.18 10.86 3.04 9.40 0.14
Expressive grammar 8.29 6.29 6.04 5.54 2.43 4.57 1.24 3.15 1.19
Expressive information 16.63 7.38 14.77 7.25 2.79 3.56 2.98 4.38 -0.20

Control group receives intervention (phase B)

During the second phase of the study, the original control group received the intervention for the first time. Table 3 shows the average scores for group after 20 weeks of intervention (pre-intervention scores for group 2 are shown in the "Comparison" columns in Table 2), the average score gains during 20 weeks of intervention and during 20 weeks of 'teaching as usual' ("Comparison"), and the differences between the average score gains during these periods (a positive difference indicates a gain when receiving the intervention).

Table 3 | Scores, score gains and differences following first 20 weeks of intervention for group 2 (at the end of phase B: t3) for initial waiting control group (2) compared to their progress on 'teaching as usual'
Outcome Measure Post-Intervention Intervention Comparison Mean Difference
Mean Score Standard Deviation Mean Score Gain Standard Deviation Mean Score Gain Standard Deviation
Single word reading 13.36 16.48 4.44 4.63 2.04 3.21 2.40
Letter-sound knowledge 20.50 7.46 4.15 4.84 3.23 5.49 0.92
Phoneme blending 5.73 2.59 0.85 1.85 0.04 1.48 0.81
Nonword reading 1.12 1.79 0.08 1.63 0.17 1.19 -0.09
Phonetic spelling 25.72 32.93 8.72 15.06 4.16 10.36 4.56
Taught expressive vocabulary 1 9.54 5.05 2.77 3.40 1.77 2.29 1.00
Taught receptive vocabulary 1 15.58 4.00 1.54 3.01 2.12 2.88 -0.58
Expressive vocabulary 36.38 11.96 4.38 7.03 4.31 7.40 0.07
Receptive vocabulary 42.42 15.07 4.15 9.20 3.04 9.40 1.11
Expressive grammar 8.12 6.59 2.08 4.05 1.24 3.15 0.84
Expressive information 18.75 8.48 3.98 4.31 2.98 4.38 1.00

Initial intervention group (1): progress over 40 weeks

During the second phase of the study, while the original control group received the intervention for the first time, the initial intervention group continued to receive the intervention, and Teaching Assistants continued to be supported by the research team. Table 4 shows the average scores for group 1 at the beginning of the study, following 20 weeks of intervention and following 40 weeks of intervention. Table 5 shows the average score gains during the first 20 weeks, during the second 20 weeks and during the combined 40 week period.

Table 4 | Scores before and following first 20 weeks and second 20 weeks of intervention for group 1
Outcome Measure Pre-Intervention Post-Intervention (20 weeks) Post-Intervention (40 weeks)
Sample Size Mean Score Standard Deviation Sample Size Mean Score Standard Deviation Sample Size Mean Score Standard Deviation
Single word reading 28 5.86 10.41 28 10.50 12.01 28 14.86 14.02
Letter-sound knowledge 28 15.36 8.13 28 22.29 7.28 28 23.46 8.02
Phoneme blending 28 5.00 1.94 28 6.25 2.35 28 6.43 2.35
Nonword reading 27 0.52 1.25 28 0.96 1.48 27 1.48 1.87
Phonetic spelling 28 4.89 17.88 28 11.00 21.84 28 20.00 28.39
Expressive vocabulary 28 29.64 11.85 28 34.00 11.72 28 37.39 14.41
Receptive vocabulary 28 35.61 12.00 28 38.79 11.85 28 44.25 12.95
Expressive grammar 28 5.86 5.38 28 8.29 6.29 28 7.93 5.42
Expressive information 28 13.84 7.26 28 16.63 7.38 28 18.02 6.73
Table 5 | Scores gains during first 20 weeks, second 20 weeks and over combined 40 weeks of intervention for group 1
Outcome Measure First 20 weeks Second 20 weeks 40 weeks
Mean Score Gain Standard Deviation Mean Score Gain Standard Deviation Mean Score Gain Standard Deviation
Single word reading 4.64 4.18 4.36 5.61 9.00 7.82
Letter-sound knowledge 6.93 5.18 1.18 5.31 8.11 6.43
Phoneme blending 1.25 2.66 0.18 2.25 1.43 2.66
Nonword reading 0.48 1.50 0.48 2.06 0.85 2.09
Phonetic spelling 6.11 12.66 9.00 20.19 15.11 23.10
Expressive vocabulary 4.36 5.24 3.39 7.80 7.75 7.92
Receptive vocabulary 3.18 10.86 5.46 9.20 8.64 9.15
Expressive grammar 2.43 4.57 -0.36 4.82 2.07 3.39
Expressive information 2.79 3.56 1.39 4.58 4.18 4.08

Progress on independent intervention (phase C)

During the final phase of study, both groups continued to receive the intervention, without additional support from the research team. Table 6 shows the average scores for both groups combined at the beginning of phase B (t2), following 20 weeks of supported intervention (phase B; t3) and following 20 weeks of independent intervention (phase C; t4). Table 7 shows the average score gains for both groups combined during the first 20 weeks of supported intervention and during the second 20 weeks of independent intervention.

Table 6 | Scores before and following 20 weeks of supported intervention and 20 weeks of independent intervention for both groups
Outcome Measure Baseline (t2) After 20 weeks supported After 20 weeks independent
Sample Size Mean Score Standard Deviation Sample Size Mean Score Standard Deviation Sample Size Mean Score Standard Deviation
Single word reading 53 9.75 12.68 53 14.15 15.10 51 17.02 15.88
Letter-sound knowledge 54 19.43 8.82 54 22.04 7.83 52 23.67 6.81
Phoneme blending 54 5.59 2.52 54 6.09 2.47 53 6.43 2.76
Nonword reading 53 1.00 1.68 52 1.31 1.82 52 1.90 2.09
Phonetic spelling 53 13.83 24.35 53 22.70 30.45 54 30.52 32.67
Expressive vocabulary 54 33.04 12.49 54 36.91 13.17 53 41.45 14.62
Receptive vocabulary 54 38.54 12.07 54 43.37 13.90 53 47.25 14.01
Expressive grammar 53 7.23 6.00 53 8.02 5.94 52 9.96 7.15
Expressive information 54 15.73 7.31 54 18.37 7.56 52 21.08 7.75
Table 7 | Score gains during 20 weeks of supported intervention and 20 weeks of independent intervention for both groups
Outcome Measure Supported Unsupported
Mean Score Gain Standard Deviation Mean Score Gain Standard Deviation
Single word reading 4.40 5.12 2.71 3.90
Letter-sound knowledge 2.61 5.26 0.90 3.22
Phoneme blending 0.50 2.07 0.28 2.15
Nonword reading 0.29 1.86 0.61 1.71
Phonetic spelling 8.87 17.78 8.40 18.30
Expressive vocabulary 3.87 7.39 4.26 7.37
Receptive vocabulary 4.83 9.14 3.57 10.01
Expressive grammar 0.79 4.60 1.81 4.43
Expressive information 2.64 4.60 2.30 4.83

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